Early Indologists: a Study in MotivationEarly Indologists: a Study in Motivation – Part 2
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By Published On: January 11, 2000Tags: 19.8 min read

Overview

In the Myth of the Aryan Invasion, Swami B.V. Giri examines the Aryan Invasion Theory in detail and shows that this concept, which originally stemmed from archaic racial considerations at the time when the British ruled India, has no real substance.

India Topographical Map

Introduction

The Aryan Invasion Theory has been one of the most controversial historical topics for well over a century. However, it should be pointed out that it remains just that – a theory. To date no hard evidence has proven the Aryan Invasion Theory to be fact. In this essay we will explain the roots of this hypothesis and how, due to recent emergence of new evidence over the last couple of decades, the validity of the Aryan Invasion Theory has been seriously challenged.

It is indeed ironic that the origin of this theory does not lie in Indian records, but in 19th Century politics and German nationalism. Nowhere in the Vedas, Purāṇas or Itihāsas is there any mention of a migration or invasion of any kind. In 1841 M.S. Elphinstone, the first governor of the Bombay Presidency, wrote in his book History of India:

‘It is opposed to their (Hindus) foreign origin, that neither in the Code (of Manu) nor, I believe, in the Vedas, nor in any book that is certainly older than the code, is there any allusion to a prior residence or to a knowledge of more than the name of any country out of India. Even mythology goes no further than the Himalayan chain, in which is fixed the habitation of the gods… to say that it spread from a central point is an unwarranted assumption, and even to analogy; for, emigration and civilisation have not spread in a circle, but from east to west. Where, also, could the central point be, from which a language could spread over India, Greece, and Italy and yet leave Chaldea, Syria and Arabia untouched? There is no reason whatever for thinking that the Hindus ever inhabited any country but their present one, and as little for denying that they may have done so before the earliest trace of their records or tradition.’

The Birth of a Misconception

Interest in the field of Indology during the 19th Century was of mixed motivations. Many scholars such as August Wilhelm von Schlegal, Hern Wilhelm von Humboldt, and Arthur Schopenhauer lauded praise upon the Vedic literatures and their profound wisdom, others were less than impressed. To accept that there was an advanced civilisation outside the boundaries of Europe, at a time before the Patriarchs Abraham and Moses had made their covenant with the Almighty was impossible to conceive of for most European scholars, who harboured a strong Christian tendency. Most scholars of this period were neither archaeologists nor historians in the strict sense of the word. Rather, they were missionaries paid by their governments to establish western cultural and racial superiority over the subjugated Indian citizens, through their study of the indigenous religious texts. Consequently, for racial, political and religious reasons, early European Indologists created a myth that still survives to this day.

It was established by linguists that Sanskrit, Iranian and European languages all belonged to the same family, categorising them as ‘Indo-European’ languages. It was assumed that all these people originated from one homeland where they spoke a common language (which they called ‘Proto-Indo-European’ or PIE) which later developed into Sanskrit, Latin, Greek etc. They then needed to ascertain where this homeland was. By pure speculation, it was proposed that this homeland was either southeast Europe or Central Asia.

Mohenjodaro

Mohenjo Daro Archaeological site in the Indus Valley

Harappa and Mohenjo-daro

The discovery of ruins in the Indus Valley (Harappa and Mohenjo-daro) was considered by Indologists like Wheeler as proof of their conjectures – that a nomadic tribe from foreign lands had plundered India. It was pronounced that the ruins dated back to a time before the Aryan Invasion, although this was actually never verified. By assigning a period of 200 years to each of the several layers of the pre-Buddhist Vedic literature, Indologists arrived at a time frame of somewhere between 1500 and 1000BC for the Invasion of the Aryans. Using Biblical chronology as their sheet anchor, nineteenth century Indologists placed the creation of the world at 4000BC (1) and Noah’s flood at 2500BC. They thus postulated that the Aryan Invasion could not have taken place any time before 1500BC.

Archaeologists excavating the sites at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro found human skeletal remains; this seemed to them to be undeniable evidence that a large-scale massacre had taken place in these cities by the invading Aryan hordes. Prof. G. F. Dales (Former head of department of South-Asian Archaeology and Anthropology, Berkeley University, USA) in his ‘The Mythical Massacre at Mohenjo-daro’, states the following about this evidence:

‘What of these skeletal remains that have taken on such undeserved importance? Nine years of extensive excavations at Mohenjo-daro (1922-31) – a city of three miles in circuit – yielded the total of some 37 skeletons, or parts thereof, that can be attributed with some certainty to the period of the Indus civilisations. Some of these were found in contorted positions and groupings that suggest anything but orderly burials. Many are either disarticulated or incomplete. They were all found in the area of the Lower Town – probably the residential district. Not a single body was found within the area of the fortified citadel where one could reasonably expect the final defence of this thriving capital city to have been made…Where are the burned fortresses, the arrow heads, weapons, pieces of armour, the smashed chariots and bodies of the invaders and defenders? Despite the extensive excavations at the largest Harappan sites, there is not a single bit of evidence that can be brought forth as unconditional proof of an armed conquest and the destruction on the supposed scale of the Aryan Invasion.’

Evidence from the Vedas

It was therefore concluded that light-skinned nomads from Central Asia who wiped out the indigenous culture and enslaved or butchered the people, imposing their alien culture upon them had invaded the Indian subcontinent. They then wrote down their exploits in the form of the Ṛg Veda. This hypothesis was apparently based upon references in the Vedas that point to a conflict between the light-skinned Aryans and the dark-skinned Dāsyus. (2) This theory was strengthened by the archaeological discoveries in the Indus Valley of the charred skeletal remains that we have mentioned above. Thus, the Vedas became nothing more than a series of poetic tales about the skirmishes between two barbaric tribes.

However, there are other references in the Ṛg Veda (3) that point to India being a land of mixed races. The Ṛg Veda also states that, “We pray to Indra to give glory by which the Dāsyus will become Aryans.” (4) Such a statement confirms that to be an Aryan was not a matter of birth.

An inattentive skimming through the Vedas has resulted in a gross misinterpretation of social and racial struggles amongst the ancient Indians. North Aryans were pitted against the Southern Dravidians, high-castes against low-castes, civilised orthodox Indians against barbaric heterodox tribals. The hypothesis that of racial hatred between the Aryans and the dark-skinned Dāsyus has no śāstrika foundation, yet some ‘scholars’ have misinterpreted texts to try to prove that there was racial hatred amongst the Aryans and Dravidians (such as the Ṛg Veda story of Indra slaying the demon Vṛtā). (5)

Based on literary analysis, many scholars including B.G. Tilak, Dayānanda Sarasvatī and Aurobindo dismissed any idea of an Aryan Invasion. For example, if the Aryans were foreign invaders, why is it that they don’t name places outside of India as their religious sites? Why do the Vedas only glorify holy places within India?

Rigveda Manuscript

Rigveda Manuscript

What is an ‘Aryan’?

The Sanskrit word ‘Aryan’ refers to one who is righteous and noble. It is also used in the context of addressing a gentleman (ārya-putra, ārya-kanyā etc). (6) Nowhere in the Vedic literature is the word used to denote race or language. This was a concoction by Max Mueller who, in 1853, introduced the word ‘Arya’ into the English language as referring a particular race and language. He did this in order to give credibility to his Aryan race theory (See Early Indologists). However, in 1888, when challenged by other eminent scholars and historians, Mueller could see that his reputation was in jeopardy and made the following statement, thus refuting his own theory –

“I have declared again and again that if I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair, nor skull; I mean simply those who speak an Aryan language…to me an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar.” (Max Mueller, Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas, 1888, pg. 120)

Max Mueller
Max Mueller

But the die had already been cast! Political and Nationalist groups in Germany and France exploited this racial phenomenon to propagate the supremacy of an assumed Aryan race of white people. Later, Adolf Hitler used this ideology to the extreme for his political hegemony and his barbaric crusade to terrorise Jews, Slavs and other racial minorities, culminating in the holocaust of millions of innocent people.

According to Mueller’s etymological explanation of ‘āryan’, the word is derived from ‘ār’ (to plough, to cultivate). Therefore, ārya means ‘a cultivator, or farmer’. This is opposed to the idea that the Aryans were wandering nomads. V.S. Apte’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary relates the word Arya to the root ‘r-’ to which the prefix ‘a’ has been added in order to give a negating meaning. Therefore, the meaning of ārya is given as ‘excellent, best’, followed by ‘respectable’ and as a noun, ‘master, lord, worthy, honourable, excellent,’ ‘upholder of ārya values, and further: teacher, employer, master, father-in-law, friend.’

No Nomads

Kenneth Kennedy of Cornell University has recently proven that there was no significant influx of people into India during 4500 to 800BC. Furthermore, it is impossible for sites stretching over one thousand miles to have all become simultaneously abandoned due to the Invasion of Nomadic Tribes.

There is no solid evidence that the Aryans belonged to a nomadic tribe. In fact, to suggest that a nomadic horde of barbarians wrote books of such profound wisdom as the Vedas and Upaniṣads is nothing more than an absurdity and defies imagination.

Although in the Ṛg Veda Indra is described as the ‘Destroyer of Cities,’ the same text mentions that the Aryan people themselves were urban dwellers with hundreds of cities of their own. They are mentioned as a complex metropolitan society with numerous professions and as a seafaring race. This begs the question, if the Aryans had indeed invaded the city of Harrapa, why did they not inhabit it after? Archaeological evidence shows that the city was left deserted after the ‘Invasion’.

Colin Renfrew, Prof. of Archaeology at Cambridge, writes in his book Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins:

‘It is certainly true that the gods invoked do aid the Aryas by over-throwing forts, but this does not in itself establish that the Aryas had no forts themselves. Nor does the fleetness in battle, provided by horses (who were clearly used primarily for pulling chariots), in itself suggest that the writers of these hymns were nomads. Indeed, the chariot is not a vehicle especially associated with nomads’

Mohenjo Daro Aerial

Aerial View of Mohenjo Daro

Horses and Chariots

The Invasion Theory was linked to references of horses in the Vedas, assuming that the Aryans brought horses and chariots with them, giving military superiority that made it possible for them to conquer the indigenous inhabitants of India. Indologists tried to credit this theory by claiming that the domestication of the horse took place just before 1500BC. Their proof for this was that there were no traces of horses and chariots found in the Indus Valley. The Vedic literature nowhere mentions riding in battle and the word ‘aśva’ for horse was often used figuratively for speed. Recent excavations by Dr. S.R. Rao have discovered both the remains of a horse from both the Late Harrapan Period and the Early Harrapan Period (dated before the supposed Invasion by the Aryans), and a clay model of a horse in Mohenjo-daro. Since Dr. Rao’s discoveries other archaeologists have uncovered numerous horse bones of both domesticated and combat types. New discoveries in the Ukraine also proves that horse riding was prevalent as early as 4000BC – thus debunking the misconception that the Aryan nomads came riding into history after 2000BC.

Another important point in this regard is that nomadic tribes do not use chariots. They are used in areas of flat land such as the Gangetic plains of Northern India. An Invasion of India from Central Asia would require crossing mountains and deserts – a chariot would be useless for such an exercise. Much later, further excavations in the Indus Valley (and pre-Indus civilisations) revealed horses and evidence of the wheel on the form of a seal showing a spoked wheel (as used on chariots).

Depiction of Krishna and Arjuna riding a chariot from Mahabharata

Depiction of Krishna and Arjuna riding a chariot from the Mahabharata

An Iron Culture

Similarly, it was claimed that another reason why the Invading Aryans gained the upper hand was because their weapons were made of iron. This was based upon the word ‘ayas’ found in the Vedas, which was translated as iron. Another reason was that iron was not found in the Indus Valley region.

However, in other Indo-European languages, ayas refers to bronze, copper or ore. It is dubious to say that ayas only referred to iron, especially when the Ṛg Veda does not mention other metals apart from gold, which is mentioned more frequently than ayas. Furthermore, the Yajur and Atharva Vedas refer to different colours of ayas. This seems to show that the word was a generic term for all types of metal. It is also mentioned in the Vedas that the Dāsyus (enemies of the Aryans) also used ayas to build their cities. Thus, there is no hard evidence to prove that the ‘Aryans invaders’ were an iron-based culture and their enemies were not.

Daimabad Chariot
Daimabad-Chariot

Yajña-vedhis

Throughout the Vedas, there is mention of fire-sacrifices (yajñas) and the elaborate construction of vedhis (fire altars). Fire-sacrifices were probably the most important aspect of worshiping the Supreme for the Aryan people. However, the remains of yajña-vedhis (fire altars) were uncovered in Harrapa by B.B. Lal of the Archaeological Survey of India, in his excavations at the third millennium site of Kalibangan.

The geometry of these yajña-vedhis is explained in the Vedic texts such as the Śatpatha-brāhmaṇa. The University of California at Berkley has compared this geometry to the early geometry of Ancient Greece and Mesopotamia and established that the geometry found in the Vedic scriptures should be dated before 1700BC. Such evidence proves that the Harrapans were part of the Vedic fold.

Objections in the Realm of Linguistics and Literature

There are various objections to the conclusions reached by the Indologists concerning linguistics. Firstly, they have never given a plausible excuse to explain how a Nomadic Invasion could have overwhelmed the original languages in one of the most densely populated regions of the ancient world.

Secondly, there are more linguistic changes in Vedic Sanskrit than there are in classical Sanskrit since the time of Panini (aprox.500 BC). So, although they have assigned an arbitrary figure of 200-year periods to each of the four Vedas, each of these periods could have existed for any number of centuries and the 200-year figure is totally subjective and probably too short a figure.

Another important point is that none of the Vedic literatures refer to any Invasion from outside or an original homeland from which the Aryans came from. They only focus upon the region of the Seven Rivers (sapta-sindhu). The Purāṇas refer to migrations of people out of India, which explains the discoveries of treaties between kings with Aryan names in the Middle East, and references to Vedic gods in West Asian texts in the second millennium BC. However, the Indologists try to explain these as traces of the migratory path of the Aryans into India.

North-South Divide

Indologists have concluded that the original inhabitants of the Indus Valley civilisation were of Dravidian descent. This poses another interesting question. If the Aryans had invaded and forced the Dravidians down to the South, why is there no Aryan/Dravidian divide in the respective religious literatures and historical traditions? Prior to the British, the North and South lived in peace and there was a continuous cultural exchange between the two. Sanskrit was the common language between the two regions for centuries. Great ācāryas such as Śaṅkara, Rāmānuja, Madhva, Vallabha, and Nimbārka were all from South, yet they are all respected in North India. Prior to them, there were great sages from the South such as Bodhayana and Apastamba. Agastya Ṛṣi is placed in high regard in South India as it is said that he brought the Tamil language from Mount Kailāsa to the South. (7) Yet he is from the North! Are we to understand that the South was uninhabited before the Aryan Invasion? If not, who were the original inhabitants of South India, who accepted these newcomers from the North without any struggle or hostility?

Śaivism

Pashupati Shiva - Indus Valley Seal

Pashupati Shiva – Indus Valley Seal

The advocates of the Invasion theory argue that the inhabitants of Indus valley were Śaivites (Śiva worshippers) and since Śaivism is more prevalent among the South Indians, the inhabitants of the Indus valley region must have been Dravidians. Śiva worship, however, is not alien to Vedic culture, and is certainly not confined to South India. The words Śiva and Śambhu are not Dravidian in origin as some Indologists would have us believe (derived from the Tamil words ‘civa’ – to redden, to become angry, and ‘cembu’ – copper, the red metal). Both words have Sanskrit roots – ‘śi’ meaning auspicious, gracious, benevolent, helpful, kind, and ‘śam’ meaning being or existing for happiness or welfare, granting or causing happiness, benevolent, helpful, kind. These words are used in this sense only, right from their very first occurrence. (8) Moreover, some of the most important holy places for Śaivites are located in North India: the traditional holy residence of Lord Śiva is Mount Kailāsa situated in the far north. Vārāṇāsī is the most revered and auspicious seat of Śaivism. There are verses in the Ṛg Veda mentioning Śiva and Rudra and consider him to be an important deity. Indra himself is called Śiva several times in Ṛg Veda (2:20:3, 6:45:17, 8:93:3).

So, Śiva is not a Dravidian divinity only, and by no means is he a non-Vedic divinity. Indologists have also presented terra-cotta lumps found in the fire-alters in Harappa and taken them to be śiva-liṅgas, implying that Śaivism was prevalent among the Indus valley people. But these terra-cotta lumps have been proven to be the measures for weighing commodities by shopkeepers and merchants. Their weights have been found in perfect integral ratios, in the manner like 1 gm, 2 gms, 5 gms, 10 gms etc. They were not used as śiva-liṅgas for worship, but as weight measurements.

The Discovery of the Sarasvatī River

Whereas the famous River Gaṅgā is mentioned only once in the Ṛg Veda, the River Sarasvatī is mentioned at least sixty times. Sarasvatī is now a dry river, but it once flowed all the way from the Himalayas to the ocean across the desert of Rajasthan. Research by Dr. Wakankar has verified that the River Sarasvatī changed course at least four times before going completely dry around 1900BC. (9) The latest satellite data combined with field archaeological studies have shown that the Ṛg Vedic Sarasvatī had stopped being a perennial river long before 3000 BC.

As Paul-Henri Francfort of CNRS, Paris recently observed –

“…We now know, thanks to the field work of the Indo-French expedition that when the proto-historic people settled in this area, no large river had flowed there for a long time.

The proto-historic people he refers to are the early Harappans of 3000 BC. But satellite photos show that a great prehistoric river that was over 7 kilometres wide did indeed flow through the area at one time. This was the Sarasvatī described in the Ṛg Veda. Numerous archaeological sites have also been located along the course of this great prehistoric river thereby confirming Vedic accounts. The great Sarasvatī that flowed “from the mountain to the sea” is now seen to belong to a date long anterior to 3000 BC. This means that the Ṛg Veda describes the geography of North India long before 3000 BC. All this shows that the Ṛg Veda must have been in existence no later than 3500 BC. (10)

With so many eulogies composed to the River Sarasvatī, we can gather that it must have been well known to the Aryans, who therefore could not have been foreign invaders. This also indicates that the Vedas are much older than Mahābhārata, which mentions the Sarasvatī as a dying river.

Indus River

The Indus River in Ladakh, India

Discoveries of New Sites

Since the initial discoveries of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa on the Ravi and Sindhu rivers in 1922, over 2500 other settlements have been found stretching from Baluchistan to the Gaṅgā and beyond and down to the Tapti Valley. This covers almost a million and a half square kilometres. More than 75% of these sites are concentrated not along the Sindhu, as was believed 70 years ago, but on the banks of the dried up river Sarasvatī. The drying up of this great river was a catastrophe, which led to a massive exodus of people in around 2000-1900BC. Some of these people moved southeast, some northwest, and some to Middle-eastern countries such as Iran and Mesopotamia. Dynasties and rulers with Indian names appear and disappear all over west Asia confirming the migration of people from East to West.

With so much evidence against the Aryan Invasion theory, one wonders as to why this ugly vestige of British imperialism is still taught in Indian schools today! Such serious misconceptions can only be reconciled by accepting that the Aryans were the original inhabitants of the Indus Valley region, and not a horde of marauding foreign nomads. Such an invasion never occurred.

Footnotes

  1. In 1654 A.D. Archbishop Usher of Ireland claimed that his study of the Bible had proved that creation took place at 9.00am on the 23rd October 4004 B.C. So, from the end of the 17th Century, this chronology was accepted by the Europeans and they came to believe that Adam was created 4004 years before Christ.
  2. Ṛg Veda (2-20-10) refers to “Indra, the killer of Vritra, who destroys the Krishna Yoni Dasyus”. This is held as evidence that the “invading Aryans” exterminated the “dark aboriginals”
  3. RV.10.1.11, 8.85.3, 2.3.9
  4. RV.6.22.10
  5. RV. 1.32.10-11
  6. In Valmiki’s Rāmāyaṇa, Lord Rāmacandra is described as an ārya as follows – āryaḥ sarva-samas-caivaḥ sadaiva priya-darśana (ārya: one who cares for the equality of all and is dear to everyone)
  7. Tradition has it that Lord Śiva requested the sage Agastya to write the Tamil grammar, which was spoken prior to Sage Agastya’s work. Agastya chose his disciple Tholgapya’s grammar for Tamil which was considered much more simple than the grammar that Agastya had developed. This laid the foundation for later classical Tamil literature, and also spawned other Dravadian languages. Agastya Muni and Tholgapya are considered to be the Tamil counterpart of Panini of Sanskrit.
  8. Monier-Williams Sanskrit to English Dictionary
  9. Gods, Sages and Kings by David Frawley
  10. Aryan Invasion of India: The Myth and the Truth by N.S. Rajaram
Early Indologists: a Study in MotivationEarly Indologists: a Study in Motivation – Part 2
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About the Author: Swami B.V. Giri

Avatar of Swami B.V. Giri
Swami B.V. Giri is a senior disciple of Swami B.G. Narasiṅgha Mahārāja. Receiving dīkṣā and sannyāsa initiation in the year 2000, he has been the main editor, translator and researcher for many books and articles written by Swami B.G. Narasiṅgha and many that he's authored himself. He is currently residing in Vṛṇdavana where he is engaged translating and publishing articles and books of our acāryās.
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