Vaiśiṣṭyāṣṭaka (Eight Stanzas of Significance)Vaiśiṣṭyāṣṭaka (Eight Stanzas of Significance)
Prema Dhāma Deva Stotram with the Narasiṅgha Sevaka Commentary – Verses 56-60Prema Dhāma Deva Stotram with the Narasiṅgha Sevaka Commentary – Verses 56-60
By Published On: March 8, 2024Tags: 20.5 min read

Overview

On the auspicious occasion of Mahā-Śivarātri, we present the following article which has been adapted from various talks that Śrīla B.R. Śrīdhara Deva Gosvāmī Mahārāja gave during the 1980s concerning śīva-tattva.

What is the Position of Maheśa-dhāma?

QUESTION: In the Brahma-saṁhitā there is one śloka:

goloka-nāmni nija-dhāmni tale ca tasya
devi maheśa-hari-dhāmasu teṣu teṣu
te te prabhāva-nicayā vihitāś ca yena
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Above Devī-dhāma is Maheśa-dhāma, and above that is Hari-dhāma, and above all of them is His own abode known as Goloka. I worship Govinda, the original Person, who has provided all powers to those particular realms. (Brahma-saṁhitā 43)

Could you explain the position of Maheśa-dhāma?

Śrīla Śrīdhara Mahārāja: Devī-dhāma is a dense portion of ignorance and misconception, and in Maheśa-dhāma there is vague misconception. It is not fully liberated from misconception, but there is not so much dense ignorance. That is Brahman. On the whole, Maheśa-dhāma is the marginal position. It is twofold. First there is a little portion of mundane misconception, then nirviśeṣa, or no misconception. There is a vague conception of Vaikuṇṭha. Maheśa-dhāma is just below Vaikuṇṭha. The highest portion of Maheśa-dhāma is the abode of Sadā-Śiva. That is the Vaikuṇṭha side where Śiva is a devotee of Nārāyaṇa and Rāma. The lower side of Śiva-dhāma is the māyika side where Rudra resides, and he challenges the authority of Nārāyaṇa sometimes. He sometimes goes to fight with Nārāyaṇa in favour of his disciples who are demons. Then he comes and repents, “Why have You created me like this? I can’t retain my own position as Your servant, and some challenging spirit comes within me and I go against You. You have given me some peculiar position, my Lord. It is very untenable.”

The sum total of the misguided souls are represented by Maheśvara. The conception of dvitīyābhiniveśa, separate interest, begins from him. Śiva is the emblem of those that possess separate interest. In his higher realisation, he tries to show a serving attitude towards Nārāyaṇa. He is between the two (Devī-dhāma and Vaikuṇṭha) in the marginal position, the taṭasthā. When crossing Brahman, going towards cid-vilāsa, the land of dedication, when he is closer to Vaikuṇṭha, Mahādeva has some influence of devotion. There Śiva is a devotee, because everything there is of a serving attitude towards the centre, so he is Sadā-Śiva. Śiva has a twofold characteristic with adaptability on two sides. He can exploit this misconceived world, but when he goes to serve the real world (Vaikuṇṭha), he is called Sadā-Śiva. That is the positive side. When he is on this side and further from Vaikuṇṭha, he is Rudra, the master of Gaurī, or Māyādhipati, the master of this world of misunderstanding. The taṭasthā, the marginal position, is nirviśeṣa. It is neither land nor water. It is the connecting position between both. It is neither spirit nor matter.  To differentiate that is very difficult to understand. Śiva’s position is there. The jīva is also of the same nature. As a class, the wholesale representation of the jīva may be compared with that of Mahādeva.

Can a Jīva Attain the Position of Śiva?

QUESTION: Do some jīvas, after some purification, or after coming from a higher plane, take the position of Śiva, or is Śiva a direct manifestation of Kṛṣṇa?

Śrīla Śrīdhara Mahārāja: Jīva means a particle of consciousness. When the jīva is released and goes to cross this ocean of misunderstanding towards Vaikuṇṭha, if he is still in connection with the negativity of māyā, he may become Śiva. The soul at this particular stage is called Śiva. Then the māyā-śakti approaches him, “Why do you leave me? Stay here! I shall serve you. You should not neglect me.” If he accepts that proposal, he becomes Śiva, and if he does not care for that proposal and goes up, then he goes to Vaikuṇṭha, to Nārāyaṇa’s land. That marginal position is that of Śiva. Any conscious particle remaining in the abscissa, in the buffer state, in no man’s land, neither this side nor this side – he is Śiva.

When he is in the marginal position, neither an enjoyer nor a servitor, that consciousness is that of Śiva, the master of the misconceived world.  Misconception means, “I have got some separate existence. I am not dependent on the Supreme Entity.  I am not a servant to anyone, and I am not subordinate to anyone. I have my independent position.” That position is known as Śiva. But really speaking, that has some connection with the misconceived world. Then only one can think that, “I am independent. I’m not subservient to any other higher entity.” That means he has got some connection to that, although he thinks himself free of the world of misconception. But still there is some continuation. Then only can he assert that, “I am independent.” But really, he is not independent; he is a serving unit of the Supreme Entity. But the conception of separate interest makes one attain the position of Śiva.

bhayaṁ dvitīyābhiniveśataḥ syād
īśād apetasya viparyayo ‘smṛtiḥ
tan-māyayāto budha ābhajet taṁ
bhaktyaikayeśaṁ guru-devatātmā

Fear arises when one becomes absorbed in secondary interests. When one turns away from the Lord and forgets Him, one becomes covered by māyā and misidentifies with the material body. Therefore, a wise person, whose guru is his worshippable deity and as dear as one’s own ātmā, should fully serve the Lord, with exclusive bhakti. (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 11.2.37)

“I am subservient to Viṣṇu.” – that is devotion. “I am master of this world!” – that is the māyika-jīva, the baddha jīva (conditioned living entity). If one says that, “I am not subservient to Viṣṇu, to Nārāyaṇa, to Kṛṣṇa,” then we can trace that the influence of misunderstanding is there. Otherwise, he would conceive that he is kṛṣṇa-dāsa – he is a real servant of Kṛṣṇa. But because he cannot do so, then he is not pure, or free from the influence of māyā. So, he thinks that he is the master of māyā – Māyādhipati.

ye’nye’ravindākṣa vimukta-māninas
tvayi asta-bhāvād aviśuddha-buddhayaḥ
āruhya kṛcchreṇa paraṁ padaṁ tataḥ
patanty adho’nādṛta-yuṣmad-aṅghrayaḥ

O lotus-eyed One, although non-devotees who perform austerities to achieve the highest position may consider themselves to be liberated, their intelligence remains impure. They fall down from their imagined high position because they show no respect for Your lotus feet. (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 10.2.32)

He cannot take advantage of the in-carrying current of devotion. Then even after climbing to the highest position of this world, he has every possibility to come down again. Śiva is the resident of no man’s land – neither Vaikuṇṭha nor Devī-Dhāma. But if we are extremely scrutinising then we find that he cannot attain full relief from māyā. If that were so, he would feel that he is a servitor of Kṛṣṇa. But he cannot do so, so the influence of māyā is still there. He cannot understand that he is kṛṣṇa-dāsa.

The Vaikuṇṭha devotee is more than Śiva. When He is blessing Uddhava, Kṛṣṇa says, “You are more dear to Me than Brahmā and Śiva.”

na tathā me priyatama ātmayonir na śaṅkaraḥ
na ca saṅkarṣaṇo na śrīr naivātmā ca yathā bhavān

Neither Brahmā nor Śīva are as dear to Me as you; My elder brother Saṅkarṣaṇa is not as dear to Me as you, nor even Lakṣmī Devī. Even My own Self is not as dear to Me as you. (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 11.14.15)

Śaṅkaraḥ means Śiva. “He is not so much favoured by Me. Na ca saṅkarṣaṇa – “Even My elder brother Saṅkarṣaṇa is not so much favoured.” Na śrīr – “Even Lakṣmī Devī is not My favourite.” Naivātmā – “Even My own body is not so valuable to Me.” Yathā bhavān – “You are My favourite.” The position of a devotee is such. He is above Brahmā, he is above Śiva, he is above Saṅkarṣaṇa, he is above Lakṣmī, and by the sweet free will of Kṛṣṇa, he is above Kṛṣṇa Himself.

Sadā-Śiva and Mahā-Viṣṇu

QUESTION: What is the difference between Sadā-Śiva and Mahā-Viṣṇu?

Srila Sridhara Maharaja: It has been told that they are of same rank. They have similar positions, but functional difference is there. The jīva-tattva as a whole is represented by Śiva and is represented in a symbolic way. Śiva is utilised as the first officer to serve in this mundane world. Māyā enters there in one function and manipulates it through him. If we are to look at the manipulator, then that is Mahā-Viṣṇu, and what the inspiration is, and through whom it is working – that is Śiva. The delegation of Mahā-Viṣṇu comes in Śiva. That is an eternal post created at the bottom of this whole brahmāṇḍa.  Śiva has the eternal position of an officer and he is the delegation of Viṣṇu. If we look at the inner function of the management of this world, there is Mahā-Viṣṇu, and Mahā-Viṣṇu is utilising Śiva who is the highest representation of this māyika world, representing the jīvas as a whole.

When I was in Madras, whenever any South Indian people approached me, they would ask, “Who is greater, Śiva or Viṣṇu?” I used to point out that Śiva is searching. He is practicing penances and searching after truth – he is not complete. But Viṣṇu is always full. He is not searching after any higher promotion or higher object, but Śiva is searching, inquiring and making penances to attain an end. He may have some want, but he is trying his utmost to eliminate his inner want. He is searching after truth, and making penances, but Nārāyaṇa does not do that. He is full in Himself. Generally, we see with that there are so many problems that none can solve, then at once they come to Nārāyaṇa, and He solves the matter. His position is like that. He is self-content, and He is the giver of the highest solutions.

svadharma-niṣṭhaḥ śata-janmabhiḥ pumān
viriñcatām eti tataḥ paraṁ hi mām
avyākṛtaṁ bhāgavato ‘tha vaiṣṇavaṁ
padaṁ yathāhaṁ vibudhāḥ kalātyaye

A person who is fixed in his own dharma for a hundred births achieves the position of Brahmā, and by advancing, he attains me. However, a Vaiṣṇava attains Bhagavān who is beyond the material world, and I and the demigods achieve that position after the universal annihilation. (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 4.24.29)

In this Bhāgavatam śloka, Śiva himself says, viriñcatām eti tataḥ paraṁ hi mām – “If one can purely perform his varṇāśrama duties for a hundred births, then he is given the position of Brahmā, the creator of this whole universe.” Brahmā is the leader of the world of exploitation that he has created and he is also a member of that. He is giving decisions, representing himself on behalf of this exploiting world. Brahmā is clearly connected with this mundane world, but Śiva is a little aloof. He is almost independent. He is the master of māyā. He is in an independent form of life – a conception of his own self as pure consciousness, not māyā. He has some connection with the world of exploitation, as well as nirviśeṣa, the non-differentiated area. The result of proper renunciation is that non-differentiated area. Everything there is non-specified, non-differentiated – avyākta (unmanifest). Śiva covers that side, where there is a tinge of exploitation to the other side. On this side, he is the master of the whole of māyā. Brahmā is under māyā, and there, Śiva is Rudra. On the lower part of the serving attitude, he is Mahā-Viṣṇu, Sadā-Śiva. Tal-liṅgaṁ bhagavān śambhur (Brahma-saṁhitā 8). A ray from Mahā-Viṣṇu comes to this prakṛti and creates a movement here. Then creation begins.

Then Śiva says, avyākṛtaṁ svadharma-niṣṭhaḥ śata-janmabhiḥ pumān – “Next one attains my position as a mukta-jīva (liberated living entity), Sadā-Śiva – my position, which is above māyā, but not that of a bona-fide servitor. My position is avyākṛtaṁ, not very easily understandable. It is not very clearly specified, because it is connected with non-specification and non-differentiation – nirviśeṣa. Tataḥ paraṁ himām, avyākṛtaṁ bhāgavato ‘tha vaiṣṇavaṁ – “Above me, there is another domain which is known as vaiṣṇava padaṁ, where the Vaiṣṇavas live. And there the Vaiṣṇavas are freely moving there in the service of Nārāyaṇa. And one day, I also expect to enter into that domain when the wholesale dissolution will be effected here (kalātyaye). I also aspire after that position to become one with the Vaiṣṇava rank one day.”

To have a clear conception of śiva-tattva, guru-tattva and dhāmatattva is a difficult thing. Bhedābheda (oneness and difference) is always there in guru-tattva. In different forms, in different places, on different occasions, guru-tattva may appear according to the relative position amongst the disciples. What we see on the surface of the dhāma, and what it should be according to the idea – this differentiation and the adjustment between them is difficult to understand. Similarly, śiva-tattva is saviśeṣa on this side and on the other side also it is saviśeṣa, and in the middle it is nirviśeṣa. Viriñcatām eti tataḥ paraṁ hi mām avyākṛtaṁ – he is not purely differentiated. Vyākṛti means form, and avyākṛti means without any particular form, any particular group. That position is not understandable between the two opposite currents.

Śiva is the Greatest Vaiṣṇava

QUESTION: In the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, we find the phrase, vaiṣṇavānāṁ yathā śambhuḥ (“Śiva is the greatest Vaiṣṇava”). Can you explain this further?

Śrīla Śrīdhara Mahārāja: That is a relative term. To attract those of a demonic spirit, we say that Śiva is a great Vaiṣṇava. We give respect. When Mahā-Viṣṇu has become Sadā-Śiva, a devotee, then at the first stage it is mentioned, vaiṣṇavānāṁ yathā śambhuḥ, to encourage the fallen souls that have some affinity towards Śiva. For their good it has been said that Śiva is also recognised as a Vaiṣṇava. There are those that are habituated to think that Śiva is an independent entity, and not Nārāyaṇa. To help such persons, recognition has been given to Śiva as a principal devotee, to draw their attention towards the highest good. Then our preaching to the fallen souls will be more beneficial. If you scrutinise Śiva’s position from a very subtle standpoint, then so many defects will be there. In general, he is considered a great devotee, even above Brahmā. Na tathā me priyatama ātmayonir – the first devotee mentioned is Brahmā, then Śiva, then Saṅkarṣaṇa, then Lakṣmī. In this way the gradation of devotion is going higher. Brahmā’s devotion is mixed with karma (karma-miśra-bhakti) – with the exploiting tendency and a certain portion is devotion. Śiva has a type of conditional devotion in the lower sense, mixed with yoga and jñāna (jñāna-miśra-bhakti).

svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ kaumāraḥ kapilo manuḥ
prahlādo janako bhīṣmo balir vaiyāsakir vayam
dvādaśaite vijānīmo dharmaṁ bhāgavataṁ bhaṭāḥ
guhyaṁ viśuddhaṁ durbodhaṁ yaṁ jñātvāmṛtam aśnute

(Yamarāja lists the twelve mahājanas, the twelve authorities on bhakti) Lord Brahmā, Bhagavān, Nārada, Lord Śiva, the four Kumāras, Lord Kapila (the son of Devahūti), Svāyambhuva Manu, Prahlāda Mahārāja, Janaka Mahārāja, Bhīṣma, Bali Mahārāja, Śukadeva Goswāmī, and I myself know the real religious principle. My dear servants, this transcendental religious principle, which is known as bhāgavata-dharma, or surrender unto the Supreme Lord and love for Him, is uncontaminated by the material modes of nature. It is very confidential and difficult for ordinary human beings to understand, but if by chance a person fortunately understands it, he is immediately liberated, and thus he returns home, back to Godhead. (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, 6.3.20-1)

Śiva is mentioned amongst the dvādaśa-mahājana (twelve great Vaiṣṇavas), but the extreme followers of Śiva, the pāṣaṇḍīs (atheists), still do not recognise that Śiva is a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. But to help them, Śiva has been given some recognition amongst the class of devotees. That is Sadā-Śiva, not Rudra. Rudra is a lower aspect of Śiva, and Sadā-Śiva is the devotee aspect of Śiva. The origin of Sadā-Śiva is Mahā-Viṣṇu. Then on the māyika side, there are the Eleven Rudras.

The Śaivaites think that śivo’ham (‘I am Śiva’) is the highest position. Śivo’ham is also mentioned in the śāstra. So many Śivas means free souls, but their position is not very high. Śiva only means free from your present trouble, but as long as he’s not in association with the higher sphere, he’s not safe. Just as when an infant is tied up – after some complaint he is untied and he is free. But his freedom is not very reliable. That kind of freedom is not safe. He can commit again some wrongdoing and come down. We say that after śivo’ham, nārāyaṇa-bhakto’ham (‘I am a devotee of Nārāyaṇa’) should begin. It does not end with śivo’ham. That is not the last point. Bhakto’ham is higher. It will connect with the beginning of the world of dedication.

A portion of exploitation, a portion of renunciation in the middle, and a portion of dedication – this is the peculiar position of Mahādeva. These three things are combined in him – tyāga, bhoga and sevā. Śiva represents bhoga in that he is the enjoyer of Māyā. He is the leader of the opposition party, the husband of Māyā. In the marginal position there is tyāga, and on the other side, he is a servant of Viṣṇu.

Sometimes he is seen to enjoy here, but his tendency is always to get out of such enjoyment. He is a beggar, but still he is married and he has got children. Sometimes he lives with them, sometimes he wanders as a beggar, and sometimes he is seen to fight against Nārāyaṇa, giving indulgence to the demonic class. Sometimes he is seen to be very submissive to Nārāyaṇa, praying and submitting to Him. But again, he fights in favour of his demoniac disciples. In this way, he is mixed. Śiva means a free soul. A soul is Śiva when he is free from material attraction. But that is a marginal position, Śiva means the marginal position. Goodness is not guaranteed there because Śiva can again mix with Pārvatī (Māyā).

The Deity Representation of Śiva

QUESTION: Who is that Śiva who is worshipped as a deity?

Śrīla Śrīdhara Mahārāja: He should be considered as the ideal, the embodiment of all small Śivas. He is their cause, represented wholesale. He is neither svarūpa-śakti nor māyā-śakti. The marginal position is held up by these so-called Śivas. They neither catch the inner current, nor are they influenced by the outer current.

Many Śivas

QUESTION: In the Brahma-saṁhitā it says:

kṣīraṁ yathā dadhi vikāra-viśeṣa-yogāt
sañjāyate na hi tataḥ pṛthag asti hetoḥ
yaḥ śambhutām api tathā samupaiti kāryād
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Just as milk becomes yoghurt due to a particular transformation, but is not a separate principle from its cause, I worship Govinda, the original Person, who similarly takes the position of Śambhu for a particular duty. (Brahma-saṁhitā 5.45)

It gives a comparison that Viṣṇu may be something like milk, but Śiva is like milk transformed into curd. Can you explain that?

Śrīla Śrīdhara Mahārāja: Milk, coming in connection with something acidic becomes curd, but that curd cannot be reconverted into milk. Similarly, the position of Śiva, who is a part of Viṣṇu, is that consciousness which has come in connection with the outer current of prākṛti. He comes in contact with the exploitation tendency and that cannot return again to the plane of dedication. That marginal portion is known as Śiva. The outward current of exploitation is prākṛti. The incoming current goes to the Centre, and the marginal position is called Śiva. When the soul is neither a devotee, nor entangled in exploitation, but has some touch of both planes, that portion is known as Śiva. There are so many Śivas (bahu-śiva) gathered around one general Śiva. When the whole is considered as one, that is Śiva, and also so many śiva-jīva souls are attaining liberation. They come to no-man’s land, the buffer state. They have a passport to enter into that country (Vaikuṇṭha) but no visa. We are that stage.

Śiva – A Direct Avatāra or an Expansion?

QUESTION: In the material world, is Śiva a svāṁśa (a direct avatāra of Kṛṣṇa) or a vibhinnāṁśa (a separated expansion)?

Śrīla Śrīdhara Mahārāja: Vibhinnāṁśa – but that is taṭasthā-śakti. That is not svāṁśa. Matsya, Kūrma, Varāha – all incarnations of Viṣṇu are svāṁśa. And that which is not a direct representation of Him, but is rather a delegation of a particular potency – is vibhinnāṁśa.

vibhinnāṁśa-jīva tāṅra śaktite gaṇana

The living entities are separated expansions of the Lord. Thus, they are considered to be His potencies. (Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 22.9)

That which is vibhinnāṁśa should be considered to be within the stage of potency and not directly Himself. Svāṁśa means a delegated function, and vibhinnāṁśa cannot be considered as the same rank as Him because He is always nirguṇa, above māyā, above any degradation. Even if He comes into māyā, māyā cannot overpower Him. He is always with His own potency.

prakṛtiṁ svām adhiṣṭhāya
sambhavāmy ātma-māyayā

I appear in this universe every millennium in My original spiritual form that never deteriorates. (Bhagavad-gītā 4.6)

He is not touched by this potency of exploitation. He is always circulated by the tendency of dedication, nirguṇa. And His devotees are also like that. But the Śiva conception is in the middle stage – neither śuddha-bhakti nor mixed with prākṛtī, but some lower touch of devotion and a higher touch of exploitation.

Pārvatī’s Service to Śiva

QUESTION: Is Śiva, husband to Pārvatī, identified as Rudra or Sadā-Śiva?

Śrīla Śrīdhara Mahārāja: Both. Sadā-Śiva is not alone. He also has his śakti, but she is more tending towards devotion. Once, Pārvatī asked Śiva, “Who’s adoration is the highest?” Śiva replied, viṣṇor ārādhanaṁ paraṁ – the worship of Viṣṇu holds the highest position. Then Pārvatī was a little mortified. Then the next line came – tasmāt parataraṁ devi tadīyānāṁ samarcanam – even more than that is the position of a man who serves His devotees. Then Pārvatī was again cheerful, “Śiva is His devotee and I am serving him, so I am doing a greater service.”

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Further Reading

Vaiśiṣṭyāṣṭaka (Eight Stanzas of Significance)Vaiśiṣṭyāṣṭaka (Eight Stanzas of Significance)
Prema Dhāma Deva Stotram with the Narasiṅgha Sevaka Commentary – Verses 56-60Prema Dhāma Deva Stotram with the Narasiṅgha Sevaka Commentary – Verses 56-60

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Avatar of Śrīla Bhakti Rakṣaka Śrīdhara Deva Gosvāmī
Śrīla Bhakti Rakṣaka Śrīdhara Mahārāja appeared in this world in the village of Hapaniya, West Bengal, in 1895 within a high class Bhaṭṭācārya brāhmaṇa family. After studying philosophy at Krishnanath College in Berhampore, he met his guru, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, and accepted initiation from him in 1926 and sannyāsa in 1930. In 1942 Śrīla B.R. Śrīdhara Mahārāja founded the Śrī Caitanya Sārasvata Maṭha and remained there until his departure from this world in 1988. He was recognised by his godbrothers for his dispassionate nature and common sense, as well as for his superlative Sanskrit compositions and profound philosophical insights.
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Prema Dhāma Deva Stotram with the Narasiṅgha Sevaka Commentary – Verses 61-65

By |April 19, 2024|Tags: |

In verses 61 to 65 of 'Prema Dhāma Deva Stotram', Śrīla Śrīdhara Mahārāja narrates the pastime of Śrī Caitanya at Caṭaka Parvata In Purī and explains how the scriptures produced by Brahmā and Śiva are ultimately searching for the personality of Mahāprabhu who is merciful too all jīvas, no matter what their social position.

  • Prabhupāda Śrīla Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s Visit to Ayodhyā

Prabhupāda Śrīla Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s Visit to Ayodhyā

By |April 12, 2024|Tags: |

With the forthcoming observance of Śrī Rāma Navamī, we present 'Prabhupāda Śrīla Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s Visit to Ayodhyā' written by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda from The Gaudīyā magazine, Vol 3. Issue 21/ In December 1924, after visiting Benares and Prāyāga, Sarasvatī Ṭhākura visited the birth-site of Śrī Rāmācandra in Ayodhyā.

  • Ātma Samīkṣā – The Value of Introspection

Ātma Samīkṣā – The Value of Introspection

By |March 29, 2024|Tags: |

In this article, "Ātma Samīkṣā – The Value of Introspection" Kalki Dāsa highlights the importance of introspection in the life of a devotee and especially in relation to the worldly environment that surrounds us. He also explains how transcendental sound influences our capacity to introspect.