A lecture on Sri Nityananda Trayodasi - Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura PrabhupadaA Lecture on Śrī Nityānanda Trayodaśī
Śiva-tattva – the Position of Lord ŚivaŚiva-tattva - the Position of Lord Śiva
By Published On: February 29, 2024Tags: 18.6 min read

Overview

We present this important Vyāsa Pūjā offering by Śrīla A.C. Bhaktivedānta Swami Prabhupāda on the 150th appearance anniversary of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda. Vaiśiṣṭyāṣṭaka (‘Eight Stanzas of Significance’) was Śrīla Prabhupāda’s Vyāsa Pūjā offering written at the Vaṁśī-Gopāla Temple, on the 86th appearance day of Śrīla Sarasvatī Ṭhākura. It was first published in Śrī Gauḍīya Patrikā, Vol. 12. Issues 1 & 2 in April 1961. As our readers will see, many points that Prabhupāda addresses in this poem are as relevant today as they were when he wrote it sixty-three years ago.

(Written on the 86th appearance day of Jagad-guru Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Prabhupāda, who is non-different from Vyāsa and feels pain in seeing the suffering of others)

Prathama Vaiśiṣṭya
(First Point of Significance –
Renunciation)

(1)
se-dina virahe prabhu kariyāchi kheda
asahya hayeche yei śrī-guru-viccheda

O Master! On the day that I was separated from you, I lamented. Being parted from Śrī Guru became unbearable.

(2)
ājikāra śubha-dine pūjibāra tare
enechi āñjali ei pāda-padma sma’re

On this auspicious day, I have brought this offering in remembrance of your lotus feet to worship you.

(3)
(mahā) prabhura vicāra saba vairagya-pradhāna
athaca karite ha’be sabākare dāna

It is the conclusion of Mahāprabhu that renunciation is most important. However, it should be presented properly to all.

(4)
kaniṣṭhera adhikāre nahe samādhāna
mahā-bhāgavata tumi diyeche sandhāna

The solution is not to rely upon kaniṣṭhas who lack any qualification. Being a mahā-bhāgavata, you have given us some direction in this regard.

(5)
ajñāne mohite yārā kisera vairāgī?
phalgu-vairāgī tārā bāhirete tyāgī

What sort of renunciants will those who are bewildered by ignorance be? They will be useless renunciants and their detachment will be external.

(6)
aprākṛta anubhave haya se vairagya
anubhava vinā sei ‘show-bottle’ ākhya

When there is transcendental perception, there is renunciation. Lacking such perception, one will simply be known as a ‘show-bottle.’

(7)
āra-eka ‘show-bottle’ pracārera tare
prabhura sannyasa yei māyāvādī hāre

There is one other kind of ‘show-bottle’ meant for preaching. That is how the Lord defeated the māyāvādīs.*

* Translator’s Note: Mahāprabhu’s acceptance of sannyāsa in the line of Śaṅkarācārya could be seen as ‘show-bottle’ in order to capture the māyāvādīs.

(8)
varṇāśrama-atīta sei caitanyera vāṇī
bhagavata-dharma sei kaitavera hāni

This message of Śrī Caitanya transcends varṇāśrama. His bhāgavata-dharma removes such cheating.

(9)
śuṣka-vairāgya ka’re habe nā pracāra
yukta-vairāgyai haya sarva-sārātsāra

One cannot preach through śuṣka-vairāgya (dry renunciation). Yukta-vairāgya (proper renunciation) alone is quintessential.

* Translator’s Note: The jñānīs that practice śuṣkavairāgya renounce everything. The devotees who practice yukta-vairāgya accept everything for Kṛṣṇa’s service.

(10)
‘tomāra pradatta sannyāsa’ bhaktite pracāra
pāṣaṇḍa bhogīra dala bhujite nācāra

The sannyāsa you have given is meant for preaching bhakti. The community of atheistic sense-enjoyers cannot understand this.

Dvitīya Vaiśiṣṭya
(Second Point of Significance – Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s Innovatory Preaching)

(11)
sannyāsa kariyā thāke parvat-gahvare
tumi prabhu! rākha tare harmyera marmare

Sannyāsa generally means staying in a mountain cave. But you, O master, keep sannyāsīs in large marble buildings.

(12)
viṣayīra darśane haya viṣera bhakṣaṇa
tumi prabhu! ‘lāṭa’ ‘vilāṭe’ dāo daraśana

(For a sannyāsī) seeing a sense-enjoyer is the equivalent of drinking poison. But you, O master, give darśana to British governors.

(13)
hindura mandire mānā mleccha-yavane
sabhā-pati ka’re tare basāo sadane

The mlecchas and yavanas are generally banned from Hindu temples, yet you make them a chairman and seat them in your assembly.

(14)
samudrera pare yāoya niṣedha hindure
tumi kintu pāṭhāo bhakta tārao o-pare

Hindus are forbidden from travelling across the ocean, but you send devotees beyond the borders of the sea.

(15)
kalira śahara ‘mānā’ guru-upadeśa
tumi kintu thāka sethā aśeṣa-viśeṣa

In the age of Kali, it is prohibited for a guru to give instructions in a city, but you have given special emphasis on remaining there.

(16)
nirjane cāhila bhakta gophā karibāre
svīkāra nahila tāhā tomāra vicāre

Devotees desire to remain hidden in seclusion, but in your estimation, this is not acceptable. *

* Translator’s Note: The word nirjana here also refers to nirjana-bhajana, or solitary bhajana. Sarasvatī Ṭhākura did not advocate such sādhana. Throughout his poem, Vaiṣṇava Ke, he consistently refers to solitary bhajana as kaitava (cheating).

(17)
ye-khānete loka-saṅga beśi parimāṇe
tomāra pracāra-kārya dekhita’ sekhāne

Whichever place people congregate together the most, your preaching activities can be seen there.

(18)
‘london’ete ‘chātrāvāsa’ karibare cāo
paripāṭi yāte haya se kathā bhujāo

You wanted to make a hostel in London and explained that it must be kept nicely. *

* Translator’s Note: Sarasvatī Ṭhākura desired to make a youth hostel in London so that Indian students could hear hari-kathā from the Gauḍīya Maṭha preachers there. However, this never happened due to his departure and the subsequent breakup of the Gauḍīya Maṭha.

(19)
mleccha-deśe ‘chātrāvasa’ hari-kathā-tare
e saba marmera kathā ke bujhite pare

A hostel in the land of the mlecchas for hari-kathā! Who is able to understand the significance of all these topics?

(20)
e saba viruddha artha samādhāna karā
khelā nahe hetuḍera ‘na’ kaḍā ‘cha’ kaḍā

Reconciling all these contradictory statements is not for the amusement of those who make excuses to engage in an unwanted pretence and melodrama.

Tṛtīya Vaiśiṣṭya
(Third Point of Significance –
The Message of Śrī Guru)

(21)
sabāi miliyā vasi’ yadi cintā kare
tabei sucāru haya se-saba pracāra

If we all sat together and thought about this, then everything would become wonderful due to our preaching.

(22)
tāi se tomāra ājñā sabāi miliyā
pracāryera kārya-karā vāṇīte majiyā

Indeed, this was your order – that we all work together in preaching activities and absorb ourselves in your message.

(23)
nakala karite gele viparīta phala
yata-dina yābe saba haibe vikala

Yet if everyone simply go on imitating, then the result will be the opposite. As long as this continues, everything will be defective.

(24)
ekhanao phiriyā eso prabhur ājñāya
sakale miliyā maje tāṅhāra pūjāya

Even now, we have all returned here on the order of our master, and together we are engaged in worshipping him.

(25)
phula-phala-mahotsava pūjā nāhi haya
vāṇīra sevaka yei sei ta pūjāya

But worship should not simply be a grand festival of flowers and fruit! One who serves your instructions actually worships you.

(26)
vāṇīra ye sevā haya sei śabda-brahma
phiriyā āisa bhāi nā kariha dambha

Service to these instructions is service to śabda-brahma. O brothers, return to this principle and do not be so proud! *

* Translator’s Note: Śabda-brahma means transcendental sound.

(27)
‘kālīdāsa nāga’ sei māṣṭāra maśāya
balechila eka-dina prakāśya sabhāya

One day, the renowned professor, Kalidas Nag openly said in an assembly –

* Translator’s Note: Kalidas Nag (1892-1966) was a famous Bengali historian, writer and parliamentarian. Once, upon hearing Sarasvatī Ṭhākura lecture at Bagh Bazaar Gauḍīya Maṭha, he exclaimed that he was a ‘living encyclopaedia.’

(28)
kalira miśana ha’la sārā pṛthvī juḍe
mahāprabhura sāra-kathā khāṅcāra bhitare?

“The mission of Kali has spread across the world, so why have the essential words of Mahāprabhu been locked within a cage?”

(29)
chi! chi! loka-lajjā nāī āmādera bhāi
vyavasā-dārī cāle kari śiṣyera baḍāi

Shame! Shame! Is this not a public embarrassment, my brothers? Like crooked businessmen, we increase the numbers of our disciples!

(30)
prabhu tāi ba’lechila pracāra karibāre
kaniṣṭha ḍhukuka śudhu ghaṇṭā nāḍibāre

Indeed, our master has said we should preach, so let the kaniṣṭhas simply remain indoors ringing bells!

Caturtha Vaiśiṣṭya
(Fourth Point of Significance –
Sense-gratification and Politics )

(31)
e saba nahe prabhura pracārera rīti
e saba kareche guru-gosāira jāti

All these things are not our master’s preaching methods. The gurus of the caste gosvāmīs do all these things.

(32)
kintu ceye dekha kibā durdaśā hayeche
viṣayī haiyā sabe pracāra cheḍeche

See how many problems have come about! Everyone has become sense-enjoyers and abandoned the preaching.

(33)
mandire-o tālā-bandha hayeche ārambha
bhagavata pracāra kara, nā kara vilambha

We have even started to lock up the temples. Preach bhagavata-dharma! Do not delay!

(34)
medinīra madhye āche ekaṭi medinī
kiṁvā śabde yāya tava asama bhedinī

Within this world there is another world. Through your unparalleled chanting however, you can enter that.

(35)
‘mallāra dauḍa tāī masjida paryanta’
e-saba pracāra-kārya āji kara anta

‘A mullah goes no further than his mosque’ – this sort of preaching should end today! *

* Translator’s Note: Mulla ki dauḍa masjid tak’ (a mullah only runs to the mosque) is a famous Hindi phrase referring to one who has a limited vision, or is too lazy to go beyond the confines of his comfort zone. In this context, Prabhupāda is criticising those devotees who only preach in their maṭhas and will not preach elsewhere.

(36)
āsamudra medinī-pāra brahmāṇḍa-bhedinī
sakale miliyā kara pracāra-vāhinī

(Our preaching) should penetrate the universe. Crossing beyond the oceans and throughout the land, let us all join together as an army of preachers!

(37)
tabe se prabhura pūjāra habe paripāṭi
āja-i pratijñā kara chāḍa kuṭi-nāṭī

Then the worship of our Master will be proper. Indeed, today let us make this vow and give up our politics and duplicity!

(38)
ajā-i ekatra haye karaha mantavya
pāñce mili vicāraha ki karā kartavya

Assembled in one place today, let us consider this. Meeting together we can decide what should be done.

(39)
tyāgī haiyāccha bhāī, kara sabe tyāga
‘vāṇī’ tyāga kara yadi kisera virāga?

O brothers, we have become renunciants, so let us renounce everything. But if we renounce our Master’s message, then what type of renunciation is that?

(40)
‘guru-bhogī’ ‘guru tyāgī’ dui ta’ asāra
‘guru-sevī’ hale para bujhibe vicāra

Both the guru-bhogī and guru-tyāgī are useless. By becoming a guru-sevī one will understand the proper conclusion.

* Translator’s Note: A guru-bhogī enjoys the facility of the guru. A guru-tyāgī rejects the guru, or rejects his instructions. A guru-sevī serves the guru unconditionally.

Pañcama Vaiśiṣṭya
(Fifth Point of Significance –
The Proper Use of Wealth)

(41)
ekalā īśvara haye yadi dhana bāḍe
jaḍera pratiṣṭhā sei sādhu tāhā chāḍe

There is only one Supreme Controller. Even if a sādhu’s wealth increases, he will still spurn material prestige.*

*Translator’s Note: In other words, if one is intoxicated by the desire for fame, he eventually thinks he is the in control. (See Bhagavad-gitā 16.14)

(42)
tomāra kanaka bhāi bhogera janaka
prabhupāda balechena se-kathā athaka

O brothers! Your gold produces sense-enjoyment. Prabhupāda himself had previously said these words.*

*Translator’s Note: In his poem Vaiṣṇava Ke, Śrīla Sarasvatī Ṭhākura writes, tomāra kanaka bhogera janaka kanakera dvāre sevaho mādhava – “Your gold produces sense-enjoyment. Serve Mādhava with that gold!” (Vaiṣṇava Ke 3)

(43)
tomāra sampatti chāḍa pracārera tare
ekatre basiyā kara viśeṣa vicāre

Abandon your wealth for preaching. Let us sit together and specifically discuss these things.

(44)
svayaṁ bhagavān kahe ekalā āmāra
nāhi bala sabe mili karaha pracāra

Bhagavān Himself says, “Everything is Mine alone!” Do not say anything else! Let us simply meet together and preach!

(45)
prabhupāda balechena sei vāṇī śeṣa
prayatna karaha tāhe āśeṣa-viśeṣa

This was the final instruction of Prabhupāda! He placed special emphasis upon endeavouring for this.*

* Translator’s Note: On December 23rd, 1936, Śrīla Sarasvatī Ṭhākura dictated his last will to his secretary in English. One of the first instructions he gave was, “You should all work conjointly under the guidance of your spiritual master with a view to serve the Absolute Knowledge, the Personality of Godhead.”

(46)
anyathāya vṛthā-śrama saba paṇḍa habe
sādhu sāvadhāna hao paścāte pastābe

Otherwise, everything will be futile and our labour will be in vain. O sādhus, be careful or else later we will regret it.

(47)
emana ki kaṭhina kārya ekatra milite?
kenai vā eta kathā hatecha balite?

What is the difficulty for us to meet in one place and work together? Why do we even need to talk about this point?

(48)
chāḍa jida kara hita samaya ye nāi
śubha-milibāra tithi esa saba bhāi

Give up stubbornness and do something beneficial! There is no time! O brothers! Let us all unite on this auspicious day.

Ṣaṣṭa Vaiśiṣṭya
(Sixth Point of Significance
– The Situation in Kali-yuga)

(49)
ghare ghare maṭha saba sthāpite ye habe
pṛthivīra kone koṇe kabe se yāībe?

When will a maṭha be established in every home in every corner of the world?

(50)
‘hāi-korṭera jaj’ habe gauḍīya-vaiṣṇava
tilakera śobha habe sabāra vaibhava

When will all the high court judges become Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas decorated with beautiful tilaka?

(51)
vaiṣnava se bhoṭa laye rāṣṭra-pati habe
pracāra sarvatra bhāi prasārita habe

When will a Vaiṣṇava be voted as the president of the country? When will our preaching spread everywhere, O brothers?

(52)
bhagavānera sampatti asura luṭe khāya
nirīha prajā-gaṇa saba kare hāya hāya

The demons steal and devour Bhagavān’s wealth and the innocent people cry out, “Alas! Alas!”

(53)
asurera ‘plyāna’ cāya tādera ṭhakāte
go-dhūma vikāya maṇa batriśa ṭākāte

The demons wish to make plans to deceive them by selling wheat flour at thirty-two rupees a maṇa.

*Translator’s Note: One maṇa is about 82 lbs. One can only guess what Śrīla Prabhupāda would say about the price of food in today’s world.

(54)
lohāra śālāra khule udara bharābe?
kṣudhāra tāḍane saba ghāsa-aṣṭhi khābe

How will opening an iron foundry fill the belly? Pained with hunger, everyone will eat grass and seeds.

(55)
du’ payasāra sūtā galāya brāhmaṇa balābe
geruyāra poṣāka-mātra sannyāsīra habe

One is called a brāhmaṇa by wearing a two-paisa thread around one’s neck. Simply by wearing saffron one is a sannyāsī.

(56)
gṛhi bhikṣā kare saba sannyāsīra kāche
koṭi koṭi ṭāka byāṅke sannyāsīra āche

The householders begs from all the sannyāsīs because these sannyāsīs have millions in the bank.

(57)
kalira prabhāva bāḍe yata-dina yāya
kali-hata jīva saba kare haya haya

As every day passes, Kali’s influence becomes greater. All those jīvas tormented by Kali cry out, “Alas! Alas!”

(58)
daśa hājāra go-hatyā haya prati-dina
amedhya bhojana kare ‘līḍara’ pravīṇa

Every day, ten thousand cows are slaughtered and our prominent ‘leaders’ are eating such impure things.

(59)
māṭiyā buddhira loka dine dine bāḍe
pati-patnīra samparka saba eka kathāya chāḍe

People with filthy mentalities increase day by day. The relationship between husband and wife is completely over due to one word.*

*Translator’s Note: In other words, in Kali-yuga, marriages are so weak that if one bad word is said by either the husband or wife, they are more than willing to separate.

(60)
piśāca haila loka kalira prabhāve
loka-duḥkhī vaiṣṇavera kṛpāra abhāve

Due to Kali’s influence, people have become like piśācas and are miserable because they have been deprived of the mercy of the Vaiṣṇavas.*

* Translator’s Note: In Vedic culture, a piśāca is a creature akin to the western vampire. They are shape-shifters who feed on the flesh and blood of both the living and the dead and possess humans by drawing upon their negative energies. People in Kali-yuga are compared to piśācas because they eat abominable things, are generally negative and never content.

Saptama Vaiśiṣṭya
(Seventh Point of Significance –
The Qualities of a Vaiṣṇava)

(61)
para-duḥkha-duḥkhī haya vaiṣnava prasiddha
sei khyāti habe saba pracāre pravṛddha

The Vaiṣṇava is renowned for feeling sorrow at the suffering of others. This fame will increase with all their preaching.

(62)
nitya-siddha kṛṣna-bhakti jāgile sabāra
āpani pālābe kali kari’ hā-hā-kāra

When that eternally perfect kṛṣṇa-bhakti awakes in everyone, then Kali will flee crying, “Alas! Alas!”

(63)
‘prāṇinām upakārāya’ mahāprabhu-vāṇī
iha-kāla-parā-kāla sukherase khani

Mahāprabhu’s message was prāṇinām upakārāya (‘One should act in order to benefit other living beings’). This is a repository of happiness, both in this life and the next.

(64)
eta kāja paḍe āche tomādera hate
ekatre miliyā kārya karaha tāhāte

O brothers! This work has fallen into your hands. Let us do this activity together!

(65)
vāsudeva vipra bale prabhure namiyā
sakala jīvera dāo uddhāra kariyā

Offering respects to the Lord, Vāsudeva Vipra asked him to give liberation to all the jīvas.*

* Translator’s Note: This verse actually refers to Vāsudeva Datta. See Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 15.163

(66)
tādera saba pāpa-tāpa mo-hīnere dāo
duḥkhī jīvera duḥkha tumi se ghucāo

“Give this fallen soul all their sufferings due to their impious activities. Kindly relieve the distressed jīvas of their suffering.”

(67)
sei ta vaiṣṇava-śreṣṭha para-duḥkha-duḥkhī
ātmendriya-tṛpti yāhe nahe tārā sukhī

Feeling distressed at the suffering of others, he was indeed the best of Vaiṣṇavas. He was aware that there is no pleasure in gratifying one’s senses.

(68)
ki dayā karite pāre avaiṣṇava-jana!
aparādhī haya mātra ‘daridra nārāyaṇa’!!

What mercy does a non-Vaiṣṇava have? With his idea of ‘daridra-nārāyaṇa’ he is simply an offender.*

*Translator’s Note: The misconception of daridra-nārāyaṇa (‘poverty-stricken Nārāyaṇa’) stems from certain māyāvādī groups who state that because everyone is ultimately Nārāyaṇa, when one sees the poor, they should be considered as daridra-nārāyaṇa, or Nārāyaṇa who is down on his luck!

(69)
vijñāna-sammata sei vaiṣṇavera dayā
vaiṣṇava-vihīna bhūme māyā duratyayā

The mercy of a Vaiṣṇava is in accordance with science. If the world is devoid of Vaiṣṇavas, then māyā becomes insurmountable.

(70)
viṣṇu-vaiṣnava-rājya yadi dharāya haya
tabe-i se sukhī loka muni-ṛṣi kaya

If there will be a kingdom of Viṣṇu and the Vaiṣṇavas on this earth, then the munis and ṛṣis state that the people will be content.

Aṣṭama Vaiśiṣṭya
(Eighth Point of Significance – A Perfect Vaiṣṇava Kingdom)

(71)
kena loka kāṅde saba rāma-rājya tare?
eka-mātra kāraṇa sei viṣṇu-rājya kare

Why does everyone cry out for rāma-rājya (the kingdom of Rāma)? It can only be achieved by making the kingdom of Viṣṇu.

(72)
kṛṣṇa yudhiṣṭhire basāya rāja siṁhāsane
dhane-dhānye pūrṇa dharā vaiṣṇavera guṇe

Kṛṣna sat Yudhiṣṭhira upon the royal throne, and due his Vaiṣṇava qualities the world was full of wealth and grains.

(73)
nada-nadī vṛkṣa-māṭha giri bharapūra
dugdhavatī gābhī dugdhe bhāsāya pracura

Rivers, trees, fields, mountains were full and the cows gave an abundance of milk.

(74)
paśu-pakṣī jīva-jantu hiṁsā nāhi kare
vaiṣṇavī rājyera vidhi prasiddha saṁsāre

Animals, birds and other living creatures were not violent. The laws of that Vaiṣṇava kingdom were famous throughout the world.

(75)
sakale ānande magna hari-guṇa gāya
dekhiyā vaiṣṇava hṛdaya ānande nācaya

Singing the qualities of Hari, everyone was absorbed in bliss. Seeing this, the hearts of the Vaiṣṇavas danced in joy.

(76)
kṛṣṇa-bhakti gandha-hīna viṣaya vebhāra
bhariyā giyāche āja jagata saṁsāra

But that has gone, and now the material world is devoid of even a scent of kṛṣṇa-bhakti and is full of burdensome sense-objects.

(77)
athaca śānti tārā kare anveśaṇa
pracārera dvārā tāhā karaha puraṇa

Yet people search for peace. So let us fulfil that through preaching.

(78)
ājikāra dine bhāi koṭi-baddha hao
pracārera dvāre hata jīvere vāṅcāo

O brothers! On this very day, let both factions join together, and through preaching let us rescue these lost jīvas.*

* Translator’s Note: The two factions that Śrīla Prabhupāda refers to are the two parties in the Gauḍīya Maṭha led by Ananta Vāsudeva and Kuñjavihārī Vidyābhūṣaṇa.

(79)
śrīla prabhupāda! tumi āji kara dayā
ebāra karuṇā kara haiyā amāyā

O Śrīla Prabhupāda! On this day, be merciful! Be compassionate to us now and show your affection.

(80)
svatantratā yāra yata hoka jalāñjali
dīna ‘abhaya’ deya āji se añjali

Whatever independence we all possess, let it be offered into the waters. This lowly ‘Abhaya’ presents this offering to you today. *

* Translator’s Note: The word jalañjali in this verse is significant. In a śrāddha ceremony for a dead relative, one offers water with both hands into a river as a sign of farewell – this is called jalañjali. Prabhupāda uses this word to signify that the disciples of Sarasvatī Ṭhākura should bid adieu to their independence and surrender themselves completely to the message of their spiritual master.

– Tridaṇḍi Swami Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Swami Mahārāja

(Translated into English by Swami B.V. Giri)

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Further Reading from the Bhaktivinoda Institute

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Śiva-tattva – the Position of Lord ŚivaŚiva-tattva - the Position of Lord Śiva

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Avatar of Śrīla A.C. Bhaktivedānta Swami Prabhupāda
Śrīla A.C. Bhaktivedānta Swami Prabhupāda appeared in Kolkata in 1896, and after a successful education and engagment in business, he met his guru, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura in 1922. He formally took initiation from Sarasvatī Ṭhākura in 1933 and later accepted sannyāsa in 1959. Upon the order of his guru, he began writing philosophical essays and books in English and eventually travelled to the United States where he began the International Society for Kṛṣṇa Consciousness (ISKCON) in 1966. After establishing over 100 temples, initiating over 5000 disciples and writing sixty books on Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava teachings, he passed away in Vṛndāvana in 1977.
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